How RPM Sensor Is Important In Aircraft System?

RPM SensorAn aircraft RPM censor is one of the most important instruments inside of an aircraft. This specific instrument measures the RPM of the Bendix in the Magneto, or the Bendix inside the Slick Magneto. More recently, they have been used in the Dual Magneto, but this is not a popular application.

The Bendix Magneto can easily be repaired if something goes wrong with it. Typically, you can tell there is something wrong with the Magento by the report sent back from the sensor. Since aircraft is not a popular focus of manufacturers, the most popular options are made by J.P. Instruments.

What Does the Magneto Run Off of?

The Magneto does not run off of the aircraft’s battery. Instead, the power to the magneto comes from the spark plugs, which work like a miniature generator. The Bendix Magneto acts as a small generator would, but inside of the aircraft. It also serves as a transformer, a breaker switch, and a distributor guide, which provides a high amount of power back to the spark plugs.

The RPMs are relayed into the cockpit and read by a sensor. The pilot is able to gauge the function of the components it is attached to, to ensure that the aircraft is operating normally.

Why Do You Need an RPM Sensor?

The RPM sensor inside of the aircraft is essential to the safety of flying your plane. Any sudden drop in RPMs on the sensor Fuel Gauges can alert the pilot of a significant problem or deficiency with the spark plugs of the craft.

Generally, the magneto wears equivalent to the rate of the point faces. The system was designed this way so that the pilot can monitor the wear of the components and ensures that all aspects of the plane are functioning on the same timing structure. If there is a fluctuation in the RPM sensor, this could mean that there is significant wear to the components that could result in equipment failure.

The pilot can also tell if the cam follower has adequate lubrication by monitoring the RPM sensor. They will have warning before the aircraft engine develops delayed timing, or if the fuel is not being burned properly.

When to Replace the RPM Sensor

If you notice any deviation in the RPM reading, you should first have all of the components connected to it checked. Some of them may need to be replaced. If you have replaced all of the parts that are associated with the RPM Sensor, and it is still providing a fluctuating reading, you should probably replace the RPM Sensor.

Replacing the sensor is a lot easier than you may think. All you have to do is remove the vent plug from the magneto plug. Insert the right aircraft flight instruments (which will vary depending on your specific aircraft). Feed the wiring bundle toward the firewall, but do not detach it. Make sure you have enough slack in the wiring bundle and plug the connector according to the package instructions.

Fuel Efficiency and Safety with JPI’s Proven Aircraft Fuel Flow Instruments

Aircraft Fuel Flow InstrumentsJP Instruments was founded in 1986. This Huntington Beach company was founded by Joseph Polizzotto, who is now the CEO of the company. He spent quite a lot of time working as a mechanical engineer and was always trying to find the best products and tools to help with his work.

Today, JP Instruments has a full line of products and tools that are built to last. These items are made for any type of aircraft and are incredibly reliable. When looking to replace fuel flow gauges, moving maps, and data management systems, JP Instruments has it all.

Fuel Efficiency and Safety

Fuel flow instruments are just one of the many ways that you will be able to remain safe and save on fuel in your aircraft. Fuel scan instruments are some of the top choices for customers who are in the world of aviation. The Fuel Scan 450 is one of the top ranked products on the market today. This item is very easy to install and for the quality that it provides, it has a great, low price through JP Instruments.

Another fuel flow instrument that you can buy from JP Instruments is the Fuel Flow Transducer 201B. This instrument measures the flow of fuels like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel. It emits a signal when the fuel flow is running regularly and irregularly. Any time there are drops in pressure, you will know immediately. The Fuel Gauges Transducer 201 B is one the best tools when it comes to safety and fuel efficiency. This product is known all over the aircraft industry for the quality it provides. When you buy it from JP Instruments, you will see just how great it works and the price is one that is affordable.

Other Fuel Efficient Tools

JP Instruments only sells you the best quality tools and products on the market today. One of the award-winning products that you can find here is the Digital Gauges 450 Twin. It has won Product of the Year many times and those who work with aircraft know just how well it works. The Fuel Scan 450 Twin gives you the power to manage your fuel and keep an eye on how much you are going through. This is also a great way to stay safe. Once your fuel is low, you will be alerted to it. This will keep you safe and sound.

JP Instruments has all of the products that you need to make repairs to your aircraft. You can remain safe and know that you are in great hands with the tools and products on their website. They value all of their customers and you will see that as soon as you start shopping with them.

How Does Aircraft Level Sensors Work In An Aircraft?

Aircraft Level SensorsWhen you are traveling by plane all you worry about is the time of your flight and your baggage. But, if you are driving a plane then you need to worry about many other things besides time and baggage.

Being a professional in aircraft area, you should know more about aircraft level sensors, how do they work and where you can find quality and safe aircraft gauges. When you are on the ground and driving a vehicle, you have magnetic level indicators that show you the situation with fuel and all other mechanical components of the car. On the aircraft there are two ways of knowing how much fuel you have in the tank:

* First, is knowing that the aircraft is the same magnetic level indicators like a vehicle, only they have a float which is magnetic and lifts your ‘dipstick’ up and down.
* Second, is analyzing and following the fuel gauging system. For example, you have some (about 30 on an A320) low voltage capacitors. This is where the fuel can flow between them. So, when you have fuel on a different level, you will also have dissimilar capacitances. In this way, you as a professional in aircraft field will know how much fuel the aircraft has and where your level is at.
* Density and permittivity readers. Besides, the two previous mentioned ways to know how aircraft levels sensors work in an aircraft and how to know the level of the fuel, there is one more thing that you should be aware of. There are a density and permittivity readers in the tank to then calculate the fuel quantity. It is in kg or lbs, which depends on the model of the aircraft. Then you have level sensors. What you should know about aircraft level sensors is that they have two states they know. Either is “wet” or “dry” which will trigger certain valves and warnings.

Knowing how does aircraft level sensors work in an aircraft, it is time to go on a next category which is searching for the right aircraft gauges and sensors. Small aircraft are having simple float level gauges. They give information on fuel level to magnetic couplings. Also, they feed information to potentiometers which then relay the information to the pilot.

So, to choose the right gauges, you should search for a quality company that produces them on the market. Searching on the internet, you will definitely find a website which will offer you the aircraft level Fuel Gauges that you need.

However, before you take them, you should check all necessary features and performances that these products offer. Also, you can always read descriptions, check the photos of the product and see the price.

Besides, all those information you should check the reviews and testimonials from previous customers. In this way, you will learn more about the company that is offering these aircraft Digital Gauges and also you will see if these are high-quality and safe products or not.

Why Fuel Flow Transducer is Beneficial in Aircraft?

Slim Line GaugesFuel Flow Transducers: The origin, advantage and current status

It was 1972 when that time leading U.S. avionics manufacturer Aerosonics began testing fuel flow transducers for use in general aviation aircraft. It was the first time someone took transducers seriously and tried to make one capable enough to withstand the vibrations of aircraft engines. It was important that it meets FAA regulations about blocked-rotor pressure drop without exceeding the 1.5 times the pressure drop of a spinning rotor. The chief advantage of a fuel flow transducer is that a blocked rotor does not affect the pressure drop in fuel-flow transducers. This imparts superior accuracy and an extraordinary repeatability for the devices and today, fuel flow transducers rule the roost when it comes to fuel flow measurement.

Fuel Flow Transducer: What does it do?

Unless the engine gets an even and steady flow of fuel, there will be a lot of hiccups and its overall performance will run downhill. In engine terminology, this is called knocking, but hiccups might occur due to a myriad other reasons too! To ensure that the flow of hydrocarbon fuels – most common being gasoline, kerosene, diesel and aviation fuel – is correct, you need to read from the fuel flow transducer.

Or, maybe there’s an excess amount flowing, resulting in a rich-burn engine. The fuel flow transducer comes handy again! It helps you to check fuel wastage.

Fuel Flow Transducer: How it works?

The fuel flow transducer works upon a vane RPM Sensor, located downstream behind the fuel filter and the Fuel Gauges. It usually stays in combination with ‘manifold air pressure’ or MAP.

The transducer produces a current-pulse signal from an opto-electronic pickup that’s fitted with a preamplifier. It has a 100 to 1 flow-range and gives out signals repeatedly and can measure fuel-flow down to 0.3 gallons/hour; however, the transducer bearing system is rated for continuous operation at the upper end of the flow range. It also conveys to the pilot the information about the health and performance of the engine and helps the pilot to keep the engine running within its operating limits to ensure maximum reliability.

Fuel Flow Transducer: Operating principles

• The liquid fuel’s rotational velocity is proportional to its flow rate. Upon entering the flow chamber, it moves along a helical flow-path before exiting vertically. It helps to vent any vapour bubble that might exist. This vapour-venting design requires the transducer to be positioned with electrical connectors pointing up.

• A neutrally-buoyant rotor spins with the liquid between V-jewel bearings and its movements are sensed when its notches interrupt an infrared light beam emitted by a LED with a phototransistor on the opposite side.

Note: Turbulence caused by valves or sharp elbows mounted close to the transducer inlet can affect transducer K-Factor and should be minimized.

How Do Airplane Gauges Work In An Aircraft

Airplane Gauges Work In An AircraftTo monitor the aircraft you are flying, you need to rely upon six instruments. These provide you with all the information you need about your aircraft’s motion, both on the ground and in air. There’s no safety factor working without these instruments doing their job properly, but when they do, you can fly safely even without the ground or horizon in your sightline.

There six are traditional flight instruments. While there are modern versions of these instruments that are technologically superior and advanced than the traditional ones, these still remain in use as back-ups for the times when the primary systems fail.

These are collectively called the 6-pack in the airmen lingo. Usually, the instruments are stacked upon one another, providing the main source of cockpit flight information. Categorised into pilot-static (or simply, static) and gyroscopic instruments, without these in proper order, you might just head towards a grand nosedive.

• Pitot-static tube: This one gives you information about air pressure and drives three of the instruments – altimeter, airspeed indicator and vertical speed indicator. It remains mounted upon the airplane’s nose. An alternative place for it is the leading edge of the wings. The tube senses the change in air pressure (ram pressure) when the plane moves upwards through the air layers.

The ram pressure also changes with the airplane’s speed. There are holes along the side of the tube, through which, another sensor measures the static (local atmospheric) pressure, which reduces as you go up in the air.

• Gyroscope: The gyroscope makes the heading indicator, the attitude indicator and the turn coordinator function. This is a rapidly spinning wheel within an instrument, providing a fixed plane of reference. It remains mounted on a set of swivels – a.k.a gimbals (appliance that allows instruments like compasses to remain horizontal under topsy-turvy situations) – that allows it to rotate. Set it in motion and the wheel maintains its orientation, irrespective of the position of its mounting, which changes as an airplane rolls, yaws and pitches.

Now that you’ve come to know what connects to what, let’s have an elaborate view of individual instruments and what each one of them does.

• Airspeed Indicator: Indicates true airspeed (in knots/mach; mach is the ratio of the speed of a moving body to the speed of sound) with colour codings, which is the airplane’s actual speed in relation to the air; with temperature/density effects corrected. It functions by comparing ram pressure (from the pilot-tube) to static air pressure from static ports. There’s a diaphragm housed inside the instrument’s casing, which measures the pressure differential and depicts it on the instrument. You get information about normal, flap-operating and caution ranges that way; also minimum/maximum and other V-speeds.

• Altimeter: Used to detect an aircraft’s vertical height above the mean sea level (MSL) by correcting outside air pressure. The ideal pressure setting (when within 18,000 feet) and the altimeter depict the corresponding altitude above MSL. It operates in a similar way that a basic barometer works. At its heart is a sealed aneroid capsule that compares its inner pressure to the expanding/contracting pressure around it when the airplane ascends or descends. The altitude is displayed with the aid of a linkage and a pointer.

• Vertical Speed Indicator: It measures an aircraft’s climb and descent in feet-per-minute (or fpm). In a level flight, the VSI needle points to ‘0’. It’s an expandable capsule that depicts the static pressure inside it by comparing it to the metered static pressure outside, which changes rapidly with the climbs and descents.

• Attitude Indicator: Considered the most important instrument for pilots, it telsl you if an aircraft EGT Gauges is on a climb, a descent; turning or moving straight at a certain level. It also tells you when you pitch altitude and also when you bank.

• Heading Indicator: This is a basic, vacuum-driven or electrically powered navigational tool, providing directional information to pilots. It works the same way as a magnetic compass does but it doesn’t seek north by itself. Instead, it depicts an accurate heading when you align it to a magnetic compass.

• Turn Coordinator: The simplest of the lot, it’s either electric or vacuum-driven and uses a miniature airplane Fuel Gauges that dips its wings showing the rate at which the plane rolls or turns. The tick marks (calibrations) depict a standard turning rate, with a full 360o degree standard turn taking around 120 seconds. Includes an inclinometer – a ball suspended in fluid and acting like a pendulum, in response to gravity and centrifugal/centripetal forces, depicting coordinated/uncoordinated turns, which makes the pilot counteract uncoordinated turns using the rudder.

EGT CHT Gauge – Primarily Designed For Aircraft

Fuel Scan 450 TwinGranted that Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) and Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) have applications in auto industry, the sensor probes and instruments designed to capture and display these temperatures were primarily designed for use in aircraft.

The Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) sensor or probe is placed in each exhaust pipe of the aircraft, roughly 4 to 6 inches from the cylinder head. These probes read the temperature of the gas as it leaves the cylinder. The exhaust gas temperature is not uniform and varies depending on the power setting, ambient air temperature, altitude and cylinder compression.

Other factors that come into play and have a bearing on the exhaust gas temperature include spark plug ignition timing and cylinder leakage i.e. compression loss. To an expert, the EGT sensor offers a peephole into the combustion process taking place within the cylinder. Usually, the health of the aircraft engine is not based on one particular EGT reading but an average. So if the overall average is abnormally high or low then you have a problem.

In fact for a pilot, it is the bigger overall picture that is drawn by the relative value of EGT i.e. relative to other cylinders and also relative to performances over normal days as well as the way that EGT responds to changes in the fuel-air mixture that are of primary interest.

The single most important reason to pay attention to the EGT reading is to know whether or not your engine is running and this is especially true in a multi-engine aircraft. Contrary to belief, in a multi-engine aircraft the pilot may not immediately realize that one of the engines is not working. This is because other than the EGT, all other displays will read normal.

For example, the aircraft RPM indicator, oil pressure, manifold pressure and even oil pressure and oil temperature will all read normal. A look at the EGT on the other hand will instantly tell the pilot which engine has stopped functioning (because of the fast reducing temperature reading).

Apart from knowing whether or not the aircraft engine is functioning and overall health of the engine, the other important use of the Airplane Gauges is to help you perfect your aircraft lean mixture. When you pull the fuel-air mixture control back, the F/A ratio will reduce while the EGT increases. As the F/A ratio continues to decrease, it will reach a point when the EGT begins to back down. This is the point at which the ratio of air-to-fuel is at its optimum best.

Cylinder Head Temperature or Fuel Gauges for short, measures temperature at one spot on the cylinder head – usually the threaded boss in the cylinder. The difference between the EGT and CHT reading is usually between 30 and 60 degrees and therefore the CHT helps confirm EGT readings. Of course the difference between the EGT and CHT will also depend on the type of (carbureted or fuel injected) engine with the fuel injected engines displaying a bigger temperature difference.

Use Of Aircraft RPM Sensors

RPM SensorThe aircraft RPM Sensors we refer to in this article are the ones used to measure RPM of the Bendix Magneto or the Slick Magnetos. There’s also the Dual Magneto but the popular ones in use are the Bendix Magnetos and the Slick Magnetos.

The Bendix Magneto is easily overhauled and therefore extremely cost effective. Companies such as J.P. Instruments manufacturers highly accurate aircraft RPM sensors for both – Bendix Magnetos and Slick Magnetos.

For the uninitiated, rather than rely on the aircraft battery, the power to the spark plugs comes from the magneto – think of it as a mini power generator. The Bendix Magneto is a small generator with a transformer, breaker switch and a distributor to guide the high voltage to the spark plugs.

A power generator obviously means there is a rotating magnet inside the generator. It is important that this magnet rotate within the prescribed range and to confirm this, you need the aircraft RPM Sensor which is a small cylindrical device that plugs into the magneto and provides a feedback to the RMP display unit in the cockpit.

Why Aircraft RPM Sensor is a big deal

A sudden RPM drop could indicate a serious problem with the spark plug. The magneto cam follower (or cam in the case of Slick magneto) generally wears at the same rate as the point faces. This intentional design feature ensures that the magnetos internal timing are at the correct angular opening point for long periods of time.

If there is inadequate lubrication of cam follower (or cam), it will result in accelerated wear leading to a domino effect inside your aircraft engine. To start with, it results in late engine timing i.e. a late spark which in turn reduces the sustainable RPM which in turn means fuel is not burned properly and there is a energy kick-back to the piston. Energy burned in the exhaust system results in abnormally high EGT. This is why it is important that the aircraft RPM always be within specified limits and to ensure this is so, your aircraft needs an accurate RPM sensor.

Replacing your RPM Sensor is easy

Attaching a new RPM sensor is easy; just remove the vent plug from the port on the magneto that covers the portion of the magneto that contains the rotating magnet. Next, you insert the correct Aircraft Sensors (depending on whether your aircraft has the Dual, Bendix or Slick Magneto) into the vent port and tighten.

Route the wiring bundle back towards the firewall taking care to not attach the bundle directly to the ignition, harness or magneto p-leads. Ensure there is sufficient slack. Plug in the connector or connect the wires to the corresponding colour wires in the instrument harness.